Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object -- they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object.
With score data and more than two groups, an Evaluation of differential research methods of variance is used. The ideal control group is identical to the experimental group on all variables except the independent variable that defines the groups--that is, the classification variable.
EDF — Item Response Theory Psychometric models for test scores; estimation of ability and item parameters; differential item functioning, equating, computerized adaptive testing, current issues in item response theory; Offered in fall semesters of even-numbered years.
Measuring the Variables In differential research, the dependent variable is usually a continuous variable, although it can be a discrete categorical measure. Interpreting the Correlation In interpreting a correlation, the size and direction of the correlation should first be noted.
Finally, a fourth class of strategies is termed participant-oriented models. With score data and two groups to be compared, a t-test for independent groups is appropriate. In making observations, experimenter expectancy and experimenter reactivity must be avoided.
The second class of strategies are management-oriented systems models. Conducting Differential Research Differential research is used to compare existing groups when experimental techniques are impossible or unethical.
EDF — Qualitative data analysis This course is designed to assist students in developing skills at qualitative data analysis and qualitative data representation.
It is also useful to calculate the coefficient of determination by squaring the obtained correlation. Applications of psychometric models to item, scale, and rater evaluation; bias detection; factor analysis; and measurement of change; Offered in spring semesters of odd-numbered years.
Included under scientific-experimental models would be: Differential Research Methods In differential research, we observe two or more groups that have been differentiated on the basis of some preexisting variable, such as sex, religious affiliation, age of participant, and so on. Detecting Demographic, Gender, and Cultural Effects A common use of correlational methods is to carry out secondary analyses in order to determine the relationship of dependent variables to demographic, gender, or cultural factors.
Correlational Research Methods In correlational research, the strength of the relationship between two or more variables is quantified. Both have been widely used in business and government in this country. If the data are ordinal or nominal, tests such as a Mann-Whitney U-test or chi-square are used.
EDF — Structural Equation Modeling Introduction to path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models; Offered in fall semesters. In reality, most good evaluators are familiar with all four categories and borrow from each as the need arises. The course will present an overview of various methods including interviews, focus groups, observations, artifact collection, mapping, online methods, experience sampling method, and oral history; Offered in fall semesters.
In formative research the major questions and methodologies are: The use of filler items and unobtrusive observations can reduce that problem.
The Goals of Evaluation The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide "useful feedback" to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. One would choose from observational and correlational methods for demonstrating whether desired effects occurred, and quasi-experimental and experimental designs for determining whether observed effects can reasonably be attributed to the intervention and not to other sources.
Interpreting differences between groups in differential designs can be difficult because of cohort effects. Agency for International Development and general systems theory and operations research approaches in this category.
There are many types of evaluations that do not necessarily result in an assessment of worth or merit -- descriptive studies, implementation analyses, and formative evaluations, to name a few.
This could restrict the sample to participants with only certain characteristics, making generalization impossible. What was the effectiveness of the program or technology? In order to compare the two groups, the observations must be made the same way in each.
Measuring the Variables Measurement, the assignment of numbers to variables, depends on the adequacy of operational definitions. Comparing these Methods In both correlational and differential research, relationships between variables are measured.
Using nonrepresentative samples can threaten the generalizability of the study. An artifact is any apparent effect of major conceptual variables that is actually the result of confounding. Interpreting the Data Regardless of what statistical test may be used, the meaning of the results are interpreted in the same way:Alumni Employment.
Learn about the employment of our alumni and see what opportunities could be open to you with a degree in. EVALUATION METHODS Although indicators identify what you will look at to determine whether evaluation criteria are met, they do not specify how. This collection offers a complete guide to evaluations research methods.
It is organized in four volumes. Volume 1 focuses on foundation issues and includes sections on the rationale for evaluation, central methodological debates, the role of theory and applying values, criteria and standards.
Each of these methods, and the many not mentioned, are supported by an extensive methodological research literature.
This is a formidable set of tools. But the need to improve, update and adapt these methods to changing circumstances means that methodological research and development needs to have a major place in evaluation.
Find lists of key research methods and statistics resources created by users The semantic differential measurement technique is a form of rating scale that is designed to identify the connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts. The technique was created in the s by psychologist Charles E.
Osgood. What Is the Difference Between Research and Evaluation? January 8, | Katelyn Mack. Share What images come to mind when you hear the word evaluation?
A teacher grading an exam? A dashboard or scorecard with outcomes highlighted in green, yellow, or red to show progress? A logic model mapping a program intervention to its intended .Download