Since the s, several attempts by different ministers to introduce financial stability had failed. There were regional differences but, by and large, French peasants were generally better off than those in countries like Russia or Poland.
Obviously, the English and American revolutions of and prefigure these changes, but it was the more universalist French… Origins of the Revolution The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions.
It could also force a merchant to dump the price of his flour he was later compensated for his loss in times of abundance. The potato had been introduced to France during the 16th century and despite resistance had largely supplanted the turnip and rutabaga in France.
Arguments for social reform began to be advanced. In North America this backlash caused the American Revolutionwhich began with the refusal to pay a tax imposed by the king of Great Britain. In short, while it may have lagged slightly behind the Low Countriesand possibly Switzerlandin per capita wealth, the sheer size of the French economy made it the premier economic power of continental Europe.
The system also exempted the nobles and the clergy from taxes with the exception of a modest quit-rentan ad valorem tax on land. And then there is Louis XVI himself, the tragic figure in this drama.
In practice, it resulted in a mountain of debts. Page 1 of 6.
Members of these courts bought their positions from the king, as well as the right to transfer their positions hereditarily through payment of an annual fee, the paulette.
The Catholic Church maintained a rigid hierarchy as abbots and bishops were all members of the nobility and canons were all members of wealthy bourgeois families.
The Bastille and the Great Fear On June 12, as the National Assembly known as the National Constituent Assembly during its work on a constitution continued to meet at Versailles, fear and violence consumed the capital.
Further royal and seigneurial obligations might be paid in several ways: They also unleashed the bloody Reign of Terror la Terreura month period in which suspected enemies of the revolution were guillotined by the thousands. Doyle portrays Louis as a good king, though certainly not a king up to the challenge of the times he lived in.
This economic crisis was due to the rapidly increasing costs of government and to the overwhelming costs incurred by fighting two major wars: The discovery of new gold mines in Brazil had led to a general rise in prices throughout the West from aboutindicating a prosperous economic situation.
Would the clergy owe allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church or the French government? In springfamine arose in this new context: Despite the pretense that France operated under an absolute monarchyit became clear that the royal government could not successfully implement the changes it desired without the consent of the nobility.
Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre, who dominated the draconian Committee of Public Safety until his own execution on July 28, Some American diplomats, like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jeffersonhad lived in Paris, where they consorted freely with members of the French intellectual class.
The desire to do so led directly to the decision in to call the Estates-General into session. As a result, there was "an insistent demand" for reform of these abuses of privilege, for an equitable means of taxation and for improved government processes. Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory Directoire appointed by parliament.
He also pledged to reconvene the Estates-General within five years. While the Bourgeoisie in general resented the nobles and the clergy, believed that they were the equal to them in terms of wealth, education, and culture, and desired greater political representation and a more fair tax structure, once someone became a Noble of the Robe, they became the staunchest defenders of noble privileges- most notably the right to avoid direct taxation.Doyle's "Origins of the French Revolution" is a wonderful, detailed study of events in France preceding the great event, and is worth reading to really understand how France's monarchy devolved into chaos during the Revolution/5(6).
The causes of the French Revolution can be attributed to several intertwining factors: From Deficit to Deluge: The Origins of the French Revolution () Maza, Sarah.
"Politics, culture, and the origins of the French Revolution." Journal of Modern History (): Ancient Origins articles related to French revolution in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends.
French Revolution: French Revolution, the revolutionary movement that shook France between and and marked the end of the ancien regime in that country. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Start Your Free Trial but it was the more universalist French Origins of the Revolution.
Doyle's "Origins of the French Revolution" is a wonderful, detailed study of events in France preceding the great event, and is worth reading to really understand how France's monarchy devolved into chaos during the Revolution.
The causes of the French Revolution are complicated, so complicated that a debate still rages among historians regarding origins, causes and results.
In general, the real causes of the Revolution must be located in the rigid social structure of.Download